Using image analysis techniques, we showed that the appearance of the human eye is distinguished from that of the nonhuman ape eye. Experiments showed that the uniformly white sclera facilitates the visibility of eye-gaze in both humans and chimpanzees. Our results supported the gaze signaling hypothesis (also known as the cooperative-eye hypothesis).
Kano F., Walker J., Sasaki T., Dora B. (2018) Head-mounted sensors reveal visual attention of free-flying homing pigeons. Journal of Experimental Biology, 221(17), jeb183475.
We developed and tested 'pSensor', that can record free-flying pigeons' head movement (as a proxy for gaze) with IMU (Inertial Measurement Unit) and flight trajectories with GPS.
Featured in JEB, Cosmos
Kano F., Moore R., Krupenye C., Hirata S., Tomonaga M., Call J. (2018) Human ostensive signals do not enhance gaze following in chimpanzees, but do enhance object-oriented attention. Animal Cognition, 21(5), 715-728.
We showed that encultured chimpanzees (but not zoo-reared chimpanzees) respond to the human experimenter's 'ostensive' cues; the cues that a human adult often uses to indicate her/his intention of informing something useful to others. However, their responses to the ostensive cues are somewhat different from human infants' and dogs' in the previous reports.
Kano F., Shepherd S.V., Hirata S., Call J. 2018 Primate social attention: Species differences and effects of individual experience in humans, great apes, and macaques. PLOS ONE 13(2), e0193283.
We found that bonobos, chimpanzees, orangutans, monkeys, and humans differ in their eye movement patterns when they are watching videos of these species. We also found that individual experiences such as rearing history (institute-reared, zoo-reared, bio lab-reared) affected social attention in chimpanzees.
Krupenye, C.*, Kano, F.*, Hirata, S., Call, J., Tomasello, M. (2016). Great apes anticipate that other individuals will act according to false beliefs. Science, 354(6308): 110-114. (*shared first-authors, co-correspondence).
We examined if great apes anticipate, with their looks (so-called anticipatory looks), an agent’s action based on the agent’s false beliefs. We followed a seminal infant study (Southgate, Senju, Csibra, 2007) for the general design to test false-belief understanding and also followed Kano & Hirata (2015, Current Biology) to make optimized videos for apes. We created two videos having the same general design (after the seminal infant study) but differing in scenarios. Apes reliably anticipated that the agent would act according to false beliefs in two scenarios.
Featured in NY Times, Science, Nature,Scientific American, New Scientist, BBC, The Guardian, Washington Post, Los Angeles Times, Business Insider, Salon, Huffington Post, Discovery News, US News & World Report, ABC, CBS, The Christian Science Monitor
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Kano, F., Hirata, S., Deschner, T., Behringer, V., & Call, J. (2016). Nasal temperature drop in response to a playback of conspecific fights in chimpanzees: A thermo-imaging study. Physiology & Behavior, 155, 83-94.
We applied an infrared thermo-imaging to examine the chimpanzee's emotional responses to a playback of conspecific fights. Chimpanzees dropped their nasal-tip temperature in response to the stimuli. Remote measurement of skin temperature is a promising technique in this field.
Kano F, Hirata S (2015) Great Apes Make Anticipatory Looks Based on Long-Term Memory of Single Events. Current Biology 25(19): 2513-2517.
We used eye-tracking to study great apes’ long-term memory shaped through single experiences. We found that, when watching the same video again with a 24-hr delay, great apes make anticipatory looks to the critical, emotional events based on where-what information.
Featured in The New York Times, New Scientists, The Gurdian, etc.
Japanese 朝日新聞（9月27日 38面）、京都新聞（9月18日 23面）、産経新聞（9月18日夕刊 10面）、日本経済新聞（9月21日 12面）、毎日新聞（9月18日 29面）および読売新聞（9月18日 35面）
Kano F, Hirata S, Call J (2015) Social Attention in the Two Species of Pan: Bonobos Make More Eye Contact than Chimpanzees. PLoS ONE 10(6): e0129684. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0129684
Kano, F., & Call, J. (2014). Great apes make goal-directed action prediction by eye movements, Psychological Science, 25(9): 1691-1698.
Kano, F., & Call, J. (2014). Cross-species variation of gaze following and conspecific preference among great apes, human infants and adults. Animal Behaviour 91: 137-150..
Kano, F., & Tomonaga, M. Head-Mounted Eye Tracking of a Chimpanzee under Naturalistic Conditions. PLoS ONE, 8(3), e59785, 2013
Media article (http://www.insidescience.org/content/chimps-point-view/978)
|Pan, the chimpanzee, wearing the eye-tracker|
|Spontaneous scanning of faces by orangutan, gorilla, and human participants.|
|Gap-overlap task revealed the similarities and differences of basic eye-movement properties between great apes and humans|
|Chimpanzees scanned visual scenes more quickly and more widely than humans.|
|Chimpanzees were similar to humans in their pattern of viewing complex and abstract scenes.|
|Among many video contents, chimpanzees viewed fighting scenes most strongly.|
|Humans extensively viewed eyes. Chimpanzees also viewed eyes but viewed mouth relatively more often.|
|Humans viewed eyes when presented with any facial expressions, while chimpanzees viewed mouth expressions more often.|
|Chimpanzees followed only chimpanzee gaze, while human adults followed both chimpanzee and human gaze.|
|A chimpanzee on the eye-tracking setting.|
|Typical scanpaths by chimpanzees and humans.|
|A chimpanzee recognized the emotional scene better in a memory task.|
|A chimpanzee on the touch-panel setting.|